Wine- Viticulture, which is the cultivation of grape vine began in the mountains of Armeria, located at south of the Causcaus. Wines are alcoholic beverages made solely from sound grape by the fermentation action of a pure yeast strain followed by aging in a tank. However, a large number of other other fruits such as peaches, orange, pineapple contain fermentable sugars and can also be used. Contrary to common belief, wine apart from drinking has its uses in food preparation (marinating) and gives a good flavor and can be used in baking. It is universal in use and used as communion as well as during mass celebrations.
Wine production (Winery)
- Grape selection
Select grapes of right quality because the grape is the major determinant of the taste of the wine. Only a few of the grown grapes can be used in a winery of which one is the European Vitis vinifera, grown in California. They must be mechanically crushed at their fresh state. The stems are separated from the grapes because of their high tannin content which causes a bitter taste. Squeeze out juice without crushing seeds as they contain tannins too.
2. After crushing grapes, pulp and juice (Must) are pumped into a fermenter. Treat must with sulphite to retard the growth of acetic acid bacteria. The wine strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisae ellipsoideus is on the skin of grapes.
Kill wild yeast using sulphite before the yeast inoculation.
The must are allowed to ferment. The process of fermentation lasts weeks depending on the percentage of sugar in the must, the temperature and the type of yeast employed in the fermentation. During fermentation, a cooling system in the fermenter regulates the temperature produced. Like the beer brewing, after the primary fermentation, the secondary fermentation takes place.
The wine ages in the tank for several weeks, gradually become clear and sediments at the bottom of the tank. These sediments are called “Lees”.
Within the period of aging, a wine that rests too long on the lees will have its flavor affected. It must be transferred to different tanks in a process called racking while the uniformity of the wine is kept constant.
This is either by filtration or by the use of a fining agent. Tiny unfine particles left would affect the product quality giving it a cloudy appearance. Bentonite, a fining agent is a natural, clay-like material is used. Other fining agent includes; Gelatin, egg whites, casein, isinglass
8. Heating and Cooling
The purpose is to deactivate certain enzymes which would discolor the wine in the bottle. This is not pasteurization but a further sterilization.
The longer the aging, the finer the wine, so after bottling, aging commences for a period of time to allow it mellow and reach its peak flavor.
10. Wine Preservation
Preserve wine either by chemicals such as asorbic acid, pyrocarbonate or physical means which include pasteurization (less often), and sterile filtration.
Classification of Wine
They are according to the place of origin, sweetness, alcohol content and color.
Firstly, the Natural wine, and second, the Dessert and Appetizer wine served at the beginning or end of a meal plan. The Dessert and Appetizer wine is classified into different categories which are
- Sweet wine which includes white, pink and red wine
- Sherries which are the white, sweet or dry wines with oxidized flavor.
- Flavored specialty wine which includes; Vermouth, Proprietary brands.
Another class is the sparkling wine e.g. champagne and the last is fortified wines.